Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC):

  • Aids individuals with severe communication disabilities to produce and/or comprehend written or spoken language. AAC can involve high or low technology.

 American Speech-Language Hearing Association (ASHA):

  • A professional organization for speech language pathologists in the United States.

Apraxia of Speech or Developmental Apraxia:

  • Refers to an individual who has difficulty producing sounds, syllables, or words. This difficulty is not caused by muscle weakness or paralysis.

Articulation Disorders:

  • Involves difficultly producing sounds. Various speech sounds may be substituted, omitted, added or changed. For instance, a child may have difficulty producing the “s” sound.

Auditory Processing Disorders:

  • Occurs when the brain has difficulty interpreting auditory information. The individual may have normal hearing, however, the brain has difficulty recognizing and interpreting sounds.

Expressive language:

  • Refers to the ability to express one’s thoughts and feelings through communication.

Language Based Learning Disabilities:

  • Reading & Writing Literacy disorders that affect academic skills including listening, reasoning speaking, reading, writing, and mathematical calculations. Many children affected by these disabilities struggle to communicate and effectively express themselves.

Language Processing Problems:

  • When an individual has difficulty interpreting and comprehending language or directions.

Otitis Media:

  • Inflammation of the middle ear, also known as an ear infection.

Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Autism Spectrum, Asperger’s Syndrome:

  • Developmental disorders that can affect the development of social and communication skills.

Phonological Impairments, Disorders, or Delays:

  • Involves patterns of sound errors. For example, substituting all sounds that are made in the back of the mouth (i.e., “k” and “g”) for sounds made in the front of the mouth (i.e., “t” and “d”).

Pragmatics (Social Language or Social Skills):

  • Pragmatic skill refers to a person’s ability to use language to communicate ideas, needs, and emotions in a functional and socially acceptable manner.

Receptive Language:

  • Relates to a person’s ability to attend to, process, comprehend, retain, or integrate spoken language.

Speech & Language Delays:

  • When a child meets speech and language developmental milestones at a later age than is expected.

Speech-Language Pathology:

  • The study of communication disorders which affect speech, language, swallowing, and/or cognitive functioning (e.g., attention, memory, problem solving) related to communication.

Speech Pathologist:

  • An individual who assesses, diagnoses, and treats speech, language, voice, or swallowing disorders.  Also referred to as a Speech-Language Pathologist or Speech Therapist.


  • Occurs when sounds, syllables, or words are involuntarily repeated or prolonged, causing a disruption of the normal flow of speech.

Therapeutic Feeding & Swallowing:

  • For children who may be eating a limited variety of foods or may having difficulty chewing and/or swallowing.

Voice Disorders:

  • Can be caused by vocal abuse (yelling or screaming), colds/illnesses (e.g., bronchitis), or can be physiological (e.g., vocal cord paralysis). Symptoms of voice disorders can include (but are not limited to): hoarseness, strained or scratchy voice, breathiness, limited pitch range.